Thursday, April 1, 2010

How to Analyze an Article

I. Look at Article Information

This is preliminary information. Fill this table in before you start reading. Just look at the title and the "meta-information," the authors' names, the source of the paper, number of pages, number of foot- or endnotes, etc.
Title:Write the title of the article here. Titles will tell you a lot about the content of the article: the geographical focus, period, subject, and, sometimes, something about the author’s approach or interpretation (which may be indicated by a play on words or a question mark). You can also use this space to comment on what the title leads you to expect from the article.
Author(s): Note the authors of the paper. If you know who he or she is, then make a note of that, too. What is the author's discipline?
Source: Where was this article published? Note the original source of the article. The publication it appeared in can lend or deny the material credibility.

II.Analysis Information

Examine the article as a whole. Try to determine something about the purpose, audience, and content of the paper before you start reading. Look for clues in the title and/or subtitle, the acknowledgements (if any), the first foot/end note, and the author's biographical note (sometimes with the article, sometimes compiled separately).

Why do you think the author wrote this paper? Does it seem to be refuting someone else's interpretation of some event or phenomenon? Is it offering new information? You'll usually find clues to the answer to these questions in the first few paragraphs. That's where authors usually try to show why their paper is useful and worth reading.

Who is this paper written for? Experts? the general public? Knowing who the authors are addressing can help you decide how to approach the article. If the authors are addressing an expert audience, then the style will likely be more academic. There may be fewer explanations or somewhat less background information. If the audience is a broader one, then there may be more detail but less detailed explanations.

What does it seem the article is about? Look at the first couple of paragraphs; they should give you some hints. Again, refer to the title. Some disciplines include an abstract that precedes the text. This will give you an uncritical summary of the paper's subject/content.

Where is the author getting her or his basic information? Is it mostly from other books or articles? Is it based on interview, archival or survey data? Knowing where the author got the information will tell you whether the author is looking at something new, taking a new look at something old, or talking about something new.

III.Primary Details

Start reading :
If the article has a labeled introduction, you should find the author's statement of purpose, or thesis statement, before the end of that section. You should also be able to tell what evidence the author is going to use to support the position she or he has taken. The author may also explain the limits on the article, the length of time, the geographic location, the extent of the information that's going to be used, the theories that are going to be applied. You should also be able to tell what the author's point of view is.

Write out the thesis statment as you find it in the article. It is sometimes only one sentence; sometimes two or three. Sometimes the sentences are separated from each other. An author might be obvious about it: "This paper will argue. . ." or subtle, giving only a statement of his or her interpretation followed by some indication of the evidence that will support that position.

Note here what evidence the author claims will be used to support her/his argument. This question may well have been answered in the first step, by checking the notes. Use this stop to expand your grasp of the evidence.

Writers of articles rarely tackle big topics. There isn't enough room to write a history of the world or discuss big issues. Articles generally focus on a particular event, change, person, phenomenon, or idea. It may be further limited by a narrow geographic focus, a limited period, or being restricted to a particular group of people. Note what limits the author places on the article.

Point of View:
This is sometimes easy to detect; sometimes you have to feel it out by looking at what things are descibed positively and what are described negatively. Note what you learn about the author's point of view.

IV.Presentation and Argumentation

Keep reading but watch what the author is doing. This step requires that you read the article to gain an understanding of how the author presents the evidence and makes it fit into the argument. At this stage of the exercise, you should also take the time to look up any unfamiliar words or concepts. Also, watch how the author switches from first explaining how the evidence supports the argument and then to the summary. The last few paragraphs of the article should tidy up the discussion, show how it all fits together neatly, where more research is needed, or how this article has advanced knowledge, that is, the implications of the article.

Use this space to note the words or concepts you had to look up. Did the author coin his/her own terms, or use common terms in unusual ways?

Use of Evidence:
How well did the author rely on his/her evidence? Was everything mentioned at the outset referred to in the article? Was quoted material used to illustrate or substantiate points? You may not have much to say for this section, or you might notice that materials listed in the bibliography or reference were not used in the paper.

You can either write out the author's conclusions (though they're often a paragraph or so long), or you can summarize where the author went with the paper. You may refer to the thesis statement to help you phrase your summary.

This is where you might note what the points the author has made might mean in a larger context. What might government officials make of this paper? Who might find it useful? Would anyone change the way they work, or approach an issue if they read this article? What difference has it made for you? You might also consider why your instructor has asked you to read this article. What new course-related information did it contain? Was the article assigned because it illustrated ideas or concepts covered in the course? Perhaps the author advanced thinking in the discipline. What do you think?

Now that you've finished reading, consider your personal reaction to it: not only "did I like it?," "it was hard to read," or "it was boring/interesting." This, along with the work in the other steps, is the basis for a critical evaluation of the article. Even if you don't know anything about the topic, you can make some judgements about the article and how well the author made her or his case. Evaluation is a bit harder. "Evaluating" means comparing one thing to some kind of standard, that is, other articles in the same discipline or journal as the one you've read. If you are not familiar with those other articles, it can be hard to evaluate well. However, you can do a fairly good job of it by considering the conventions of other, similar articles. Does this one fit the pattern? Does it have quality, that is, does it make up to the academic standards of writing, presentation, organization, source citation, and such?

Personal Reaction:
This is where you note your personal reaction to the paper. Your comments might be one or two words, or might be longer. Remember, too, that these notes will allow you to quickly review the article later on. You might do well to write your future self fairly detailed notes.

Strength of Case:
Did the author persuade you that the point/argument she/he was making was true, or at least convincing? Did you feel, at any time, that the author was just hoping you'd agree? Use this space to note how convincing you thought the article was.

Use this space to note how good this article was compared to other articles, either in the discipline/area, or in the same journal. It is helpful to write pages numbers of relevant passages in the article.

Use this space to record your sense of the quality of the paper. In most published articles, the quality will be quite high. Many people contribute to helping an author revise and refine a paper and what you see published is rarely what the author originally wrote. There may be some technical problems, like spelling mistakes or formatting problems that you might note.

Use this space and the ones below to record anything else you might need to know about the article either to write a summary or a review or to remember about it so you can read the summary sheet instead of reading the article again before tests or exams or for referring to it in a paper.

How to Write Bibliography

What is Bibliography?

A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project. But, you develop a bibliography only after first preparing a background research plan -- a roadmap of the research questions you need to answer. Before you compose your bibliography, you will need to develop your background research plan.

How to write a bibliography?

Collect this information for each printed source:

author name
title of the publication (and the title of the article if it's a magazine or encyclopedia)
date of publication
the place of publication of a book
the publishing company of a book
the volume number of a magazine or printed encyclopedia
the page number(s)

Collect this information for each Web Site:

author and editor names (if available)
title of the page (if available)
the company or organization who posted the webpage
the Web address for the page (called a URL)
the last date you looked at the page

Wednesday, February 10, 2010

Top 10 Tough Interview Questions

1. Tell me about yourself.
It seems like an easy interview question. It’s open ended. I can talk about whatever I want from the birth canal forward. Right?
Wrong. What the hiring manager really wants is a quick, two- to three-minute snapshot of who you are and why you’re the best candidate for this position.
So as you answer this question, talk about what you’ve done to prepare yourself to be the very best candidate for the position. Use an example or two to back it up. Then ask if they would like more details. If they do, keep giving them example after example of your background and experience. Always point back to an example when you have the opportunity.
“Tell me about yourself” does not mean tell me everything. Just tell me what makes you the best.

2. Why should I hire you?
The easy answer is that you are the best person for the job. And don’t be afraid to say so. But then back it up with what specifically differentiates you.
For example: “You should hire me because I’m the best person for the job. I realize that there are likely other candidates who also have the ability to do this job. Yet I bring an additional quality that makes me the best person for the job--my passion for excellence. I am passionately committed to producing truly world class results. For example . . .”
Are you the best person for the job? Show it by your passionate examples.

3. What is your long-range objective?
Make my job easy for me. Make me want to hire you.
The key is to focus on your achievable objectives and what you are doing to reach those objectives.
For example: “Within five years, I would like to become the very best accountant your company has on staff. I want to work toward becoming the expert that others rely upon. And in doing so, I feel I’ll be fully prepared to take on any greater responsibilities which might be presented in the long term. For example, here is what I’m presently doing to prepare myself . . .”
Then go on to show by your examples what you are doing to reach your goals and objectives.

4. How has your education prepared you for your career?
This is a broad question and you need to focus on the behavioral examples in your educational background which specifically align to the required competencies for the career.
An example: “My education has focused on not only the learning the fundamentals, but also on the practical application of the information learned within those classes. For example, I played a lead role in a class project where we gathered and analyzed best practice data from this industry. Let me tell you more about the results . . .”
Focus on behavioral examples supporting the key competencies for the career. Then ask if they would like to hear more examples.

5. Are you a team player?
Almost everyone says yes to this question. But it is not just a yes/no question. You need to provide behavioral examples to back up your answer.
A sample answer: “Yes, I’m very much a team player. In fact, I’ve had opportunities in my work, school and athletics to develop my skills as a team player. For example, on a recent project . . .”
Emphasize teamwork behavioral examples and focus on your openness to diversity of backgrounds. Talk about the strength of the team above the individual. And note that this question may be used as a lead in to questions around how you handle conflict within a team, so be prepared.

6. Have you ever had a conflict with a boss or professor? How was it resolved?
Note that if you say no, most interviewers will keep drilling deeper to find a conflict. The key is how you behaviorally reacted to conflict and what you did to resolve it.
For example: “Yes, I have had conflicts in the past. Never major ones, but there have been disagreements that needed to be resolved. I've found that when conflict occurs, it helps to fully understand the other person’s perspective, so I take time to listen to their point of view, then I seek to work out a collaborative solution. For example . . .”
Focus your answer on the behavioral process for resolving the conflict and working collaboratively.

7. What is your greatest weakness?
Most career books tell you to select a strength and present it as a weakness. Such as: “I work too much. I just work and work and work.” Wrong. First of all, using a strength and presenting it as a weakness is deceiving. Second, it misses the point of the question.
You should select a weakness that you have been actively working to overcome. For example: “I have had trouble in the past with planning and prioritization. However, I’m now taking steps to correct this. I just started using a pocket planner . . .” then show them your planner and how you are using it.
Talk about a true weakness and show what you are doing to overcome it.

8. If I were to ask your professors to describe you, what would they say?
This is a threat of reference check question. Do not wait for the interview to know the answer. Ask any prior bosses or professors in advance. And if they’re willing to provide a positive reference, ask them for a letter of recommendation.
Then you can answer the question like this:
“I believe she would say I'm a very energetic person, that I’m results oriented and one of the best people she has ever worked with. Actually, I know she would say that, because those are her very words. May I show you her letter of recommendation?”
So be prepared in advance with your letters of recommendation.

9. What qualities do you feel a successful manager should have?
Focus on two words: leadership and vision.
Here is a sample of how to respond: “The key quality in a successful manager should be leadership--the ability to be the visionary for the people who are working under them. The person who can set the course and direction for subordinates. The highest calling of a true leader is inspiring others to reach the highest of their abilities. I'd like to tell you about a person whom I consider to be a true leader . . .”
Then give an example of someone who has touched your life and how their impact has helped in your personal development.

10. If you had to live your life over again, what one thing would you change?
Focus on a key turning point in your life or missed opportunity. Yet also tie it forward to what you are doing to still seek to make that change.
For example: “Although I’m overall very happy with where I’m at in my life, the one aspect I likely would have changed would be focusing earlier on my chosen career. I had a great internship this past year and look forward to more experience in the field. I simply wish I would have focused here earlier. For example, I learned on my recent internship…” …then provide examples.
Stay focused on positive direction in your life and back it up with examples.
In reviewing these responses, please remember that they are only to be viewed samples. Please do not rehearse them verbatim or adopt them as your own. They are meant to stir your creative juices and get you thinking about how to properly answer the broader range of questions that you will face.

How to Make an Anime Costume

Cosplay," or costume role-play, is a popular pastime in the anime (Japanese animation) world. Dressing up as your favorite anime character is a way of showing loyalty to a brand, celebrating at an anime convention or event, expressing creativity or simply having a good time.

Things You'll Need:

Colorful fabric
Platform shoes
Design and Make Your Own Anime Costume

Step 1
Choose the anime character you want to portray in your costume. These can be famous anime figures like characters from Dragon Ball Z or Bleach, or female standards like Sailor Moon. You can also create your own anime character with a color or adventure theme.

Step 2
Choose an appropriate wig for your costume. Even male characters in anime are known for having outrageous hair colors and styles, so shop around for the brightest, boldest wig you can find.

Step 3
Shop at martial arts surplus stores or dancewear stores for bright costume pieces for your wardrobe. Depending on the type of character you are portraying, you may need a variety of pieces that you can alter once you get home.

Step 4
Sew on patches, symbols or pieces of fabric to customize your costume to your liking. For female characters, you may consider sewing panels onto very short skirts to create varying layers. Male characters might need a colorful sash for a samurai robe or metallic fabric for a mecha (robot) costume.

Step 5
Accessorize your costume with platform shoes or boots. Female and male characters alike can utilize these props to add drama to any anime costume. The higher the better, so seek out specialty shops for the best finds.

Step 6
Customize your makeup to match your female costume. A dot of red rouge on the cheeks and/or red lipstick only at the center of the lips is a popular choice. Bright eyeshadows in dramatic hues are often favored choices as well.

Step 7
Make a sensation by adding eye-catching accessories to your costume, such as wands, swords, wooden staffs or crowns. Make sure that they match the theme of your costume, though, and never bring anything sharp out in public.

Tips & Warnings

The only rule with anime costume making is that there are no rules. You can add different wigs to bright outfits and mix and match styles to create your own look. The spirit of cosplay encourages originality, so go for it!
If you can't find what you're looking for in wigs, you might consider dying one on your own and cutting it in the style you want.


How to Make Bouncy Bubble Solution

Do you have kids? Do they love to play bouncy bubbles? I observe kids love to play bouncy bubbles.They enjoy the different colors of bubbles floating in the air.isn't it?
For moms, I will share you a recipe how to make bouncy bubble solution so that you can save buying from your kids.

All-Purpose Bubble Solution
This solution is great for most bubble tricks, activities, and experiments.

◦1 part water to 1 part Johnson’s Baby Shampoo
Johnson’s Baby Shampoo produces much better bubbles than any of the dish detergents we tried. Mix the ingredients gently and let the solution stand for a couple of hours.

Bouncy Bubble Solution
You can bounce these bubbles off your clothes!

◦1 package unflavoured gelatin (e.g. Knox brand)
◦250 ml (1 cup) hot water (just boiled)
◦50–70 ml glycerine*
◦250 ml Johnson’s Baby Shampoo
Dissolve the gelatin in the hot water. Add the shampoo and glycerine. Stir gently. This solution will gel as it cools. Reheat it carefully in the microwave (about two minutes).

About glycerine
What does the glycerine do?

Glycerine helps soap bubbles hold water, so that they last longer. It’s very helpful if you’re doing bubble tricks, but less important if you’re mixing up a bucket of bubble solution for preschoolers to mess about with.

Where do I get glycerine?

Most pharmacies carry glycerine. You’ll only need a small bottle.

How much glycerine should I use?

We’re not precise about it. Try 1–3 teaspoons for about a litre of bubble solution.

Saturday, January 16, 2010

Carbonara Recipe


1/2 kilo fettuccine pasta or spaghetti
1/4 block of butter
6-8 strips of bacon chopped
1/4 cup mushroom (optional)
3-4 cloves of garlic minced
1 cup cream or 1 cup milk(evaporated milk will do) and 1 egg yolk
1/8 kilo grated Parmesan cheese (or quick melt cheese would do)
Fresh-ground pepper and Salt, to taste

1. Cook noodles as package directs. Drain. Place in a dry pan. Add oil (para hindi magdikitdikit at madry;) )

2. Put chopped bacon on a nonstick pan(that would do the trick, ordinary pan would do but prepared or the clean up). Cook the bacon til its crispy :naughty: set a side.

3. Using the same pan (take out the oil) melt the butter and saute the garlic and mushroom

4. Then add the cream let it simmer for 2-3 minutes then add half of the cheese :naughty: Add salt and pepper to taste. Turn off the heat once the cheese melted.
(if you'll be using milk and egg yolk instead, add the milk first in the sauce pan making it simmer for a minute or 2 while beating egg yolk lightly then add 2-3 talbespoon of the simmered milk mixture on your egg yolk this would temper the egg for it not to curdle when added to the hot mixture :naughty:. after tempering the egg add it to the mixture then half of the cheese. Add salt and pepper to taste. Turn of the heat once the cheese melted.)

5. Toss in the pasta and cooked bacon on the pan(dun sa sauce). Add the remaining cheese on top then serve.

Thursday, December 10, 2009

Shop your Sports Wear Now

Are you looking for sports wear?Yet, you have no time to shop in the mall.Most athletes or sportsman time are pre occupied. In buying your sports wear no need to worry of going to the mall simply browse team sports you and your teamates can shop online for durable and cheapest wear.You can pick here your sports wear that will be competitive in the game.For schools or universities that organized cheering competition this site is best for you.The complete paraphernalias for your cheering team is here. Those who love to play volleyball,soccer and football your sports wear is also available in this site.The picture of the ball posted was my best choice.

The cheering team uniform can catch the eye of the judges and viewers.In choosing your cheering team uniform it should be catchy and nice .I found one cheering uniform that cost 14dollars only(picture posted).There are also for young woman that cost 53dollars.Do not worry about the shipment rate.For Asia it cost maximum of 12 dollars only.The cheapest shoes in the site is 44dollars.It is easy to shop online just simply browse the site given above,look for your site and fit sports wear.